Hematuria- Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Hematuria
Paper kidneys on pink background

An Introduction to Hematuria

If this happens often enough, it’s called “hematuria.” which means that one or more cells have broken off from inside the lining of the bladder wall into the urine stream. This could indicate an infection, injury, tumor, inflammation, or other problem. It also shows that something might be wrong with the kidneys or ureters. Sometimes people call it “bloody” because they don’t know what else to say.

What is the leading cause of Hematuria?

The most common causes for Hematuria are:

1. Kidney disease

2. Bladder cancer

3. Prostate enlargement

4. Urological stones

5. Other conditions that can lead to bleeding from anywhere in your body

6. Hematological disorders such as leukemia or lymphoma

7. Systemic diseases like lupus erythematosus

8. Drugs used by patients with certain types of kidney problems

9. Trauma

10. Infection

11. Injuries

12. congenital disabilities

13. Surgery

What are the symptoms of Hematuria?

There are several ways you may be asked about symptoms related to blood in the urine. The doctor will ask if there has been any change in frequency or amount of urination, pain during urination, burning sensation while urinating, a feeling of incomplete emptying after urination, difficulty passing urine, painful ejaculation, urinary tract infections, fever, chills, nausea/vomiting, backache, abdominal discomfort, weight loss, fatigue, leg cramps, bone pains, muscle weakness, numbness, tingling sensations, skin rashes, etc., all over your body.

How is Hematuria confirmed with Tests?

To confirm whether you do have Hematuria, doctors use two tests. One test involves looking at the urine color, and another test checks for protein levels in the urine. These tests help determine how severe the condition is and which treatment options best suit you.

What are the Diagnostic Procedures to find if you have Hematuria?

  • Urine Analysis

A simple way to detect red blood cells is to dip a strip on a stick into the urine sample. When dipped into the liquid, the strip changes color when exposed to blood. After dropping the strip into the urine, place it under a light source so that the strips turn blue. You’ll see a positive result only if the urine contains sufficient amounts of blood.

  • Urine Protein Test

To check for proteins in the urine, collect a few fresh urine drops onto a slide. Place another dot of standard saline solution on top of the first droplet. Look through a microscope at 100X magnification. Notice how many white particles appear in the second layer of fluid compared to the first. White particles in the urine indicate high protein content; therefore, the presence of these particles confirms the diagnosis of Hematuria.

Is Hematuria a medical emergency?

No! Not unless it gets worse quickly. However, it should not go untreated either. Most cases of hematuria resolve within two weeks without intervention, and some patients require immediate attention. For example, if you experience a sudden onset of pain in your lower abdomen, contact your physician immediately. Also, if you notice a bloody discharge from your penis or vagina, seek medical care right away.

What are the Treatment Options for treating Hematuria?

If no underlying cause is found, treating Hematuria usually resolves itself within 4 to 6 weeks. There are various treatments available depending upon the severity of the case. Your doctor may recommend some combination of medications, diet modifications, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation. Here are some possible solutions:

  • Antibiotics

Antibiotic drugs such as trimethoprim can treat bacterial causes of Hematuria, and they work by killing bacteria in the bladder lining, which helps prevent further infection. If an antibiotic drug does not clear up the problem, other therapies might need to be considered.

  • Cytotoxic Drugs

Cytotoxic drugs kill cancerous cells. In this situation, cytotoxins would destroy abnormal tissue growths causing bleeding.

  • Proton Pump Inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole. These medicines reduce stomach acid production, and the reduced amount of acid allows more time for food digestion. As a result, fewer digestive enzymes enter the bloodstream. Therefore, fewer substances break down inside the kidneys, and consequently, there’s less chance of kidney damage.

  • NSAIDs

NSAID drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketorolac, meloxicam, indomethacin, diclofenac sodium, etodolac, piroxicam, nabumetone, sulindac, celecoxib, rofecoxib, nimesulide, tenidap, fenbufen, meclomen, flurbiprofen, tiaprofenic acid, carprofen, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, and others. All of them inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. By doing so, they help relieve inflammation throughout the body. Thus, reducing swelling caused by irritation.

  • Cortisone

Cortisol reduces inflammation. It also promotes healing and prevents scarring. Because cortisone works fast, most doctors prescribe it for severe cases of Hematuria. But, because cortisone has side effects including weight gain, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis, cataracts, glaucoma, mood swings, depression, anxiety, insomnia, skin thinning, bruising, muscle weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hair loss, acne, increased appetite, and headaches, must be
carefully monitored.

  • Radiation Therapy

Radiation treatment involves using X-rays to target specific body areas where tumors have developed. Tissues affected by radiation become damaged and die off over time. So, radiation destroys cancerous tissues while leaving healthy ones intact.

  • Surgery

Surgery removes parts of the urinary tract that contain blood clots. A surgeon will remove any tumor masses present on the ureteral wall. Then they will repair any tears or holes in the walls of the bladder or urethra. Sometimes, surgeons perform a cystoscopy during surgery to look at the inner surface of the bladder.

The surgeon inserts a small camera called a cystoscope through the patient’s urethral opening during this procedure. They view the entire interior of the bladder with the aid of a light source attached to the end of the scope. Once everything looks good, the surgeon closes the incision site.

  • Diet Modification

Diet modification includes limiting foods high in purines. Foods containing large amounts of purine are meat, organ meats such as liver, fish, shellfish, peanuts, beans, lentils, peas, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, eggs, milk, yogurt, cheese, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, lima beans, soybeans, tomatoes, avocados, carrots, cabbage, celery, garlic, onions, mushrooms, peppers, Brussels sprouts, pineapple, mangoes, papayas, peaches, plums, prunes, raisins, strawberries, watermelon, canteloupe, honeydew melon, kiwi fruit, figs, apricots, apples, oranges, persimmons, bananas, dates, dried fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, and other plant products.

How long does Hematuria last?

Hematuria that occurs because of urinary tract infections usually lasts only one week; however, severe cases lasting longer than two weeks require further evaluation. The duration depends on the cause, severity of symptoms, underlying medical conditions, and treatment options. Some reasons for prolonged Hematuria will resolve spontaneously over time, and other causes, while less common, may result in death if left untreated.

Conclusion

Staying Strong is always a cure for any disease. Switch to a proper diet and take necessary nutrients, and even some lifestyle changes can help you heal through your condition. Look forward and always try to remain disease-free.

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