Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal plants.
The term pharmacognosy is used to describe the study of medicinal plants and their active constituents. Pharmacognosists are often herbalists, but this term has been criticized for misleading because it implies that all herbs have a therapeutic effect. The word “pharmacy” means drug or medicine in Greek; thus, pharmacognosy can be defined as the science which studies drugs from natural sources.
Theophrastus first used the term pharmacognosy to describe his studies on plant medicines. In ancient times, many people believed that certain diseases were caused by evil spirits expelled through herbs. These herbs were called pharmacies. Herbalists would use these herbal remedies to treat patients with specific ailments. This practice continued until about 1000 AD, when physicians began using more modern methods such as surgery and anesthesia.
Natural products chemistry
Herbal Botanicals, any substance obtained directly from living plants, such as fruits, leaves, roots, seeds, flowers, bark, wood, resins, oils, waxes, latex, etc., whether they have been processed into an extractor not.
There has been increased interest in herbal medicine in recent years because of concerns regarding side effects associated with pharmaceuticals. Herbal remedies offer several advantages, including lower cost, fewer adverse reactions, greater availability, and more flexibility than pharmaceutical alternatives. However, the use of herbal products also raises questions regarding safety and quality control issues. For example, while most people believe that herbal supplements are safe, there are still risks involved when using them.
There are several reasons why research into herbal therapies remains controversial.
Examples of Medicinal Plants
Many medicinal plants contain compounds with therapeutic potentials for humans. Some examples include:
Aloe vera Burm.f., Aloaceae – contains aloin, a bitter principle; also has anti-inflammatory activity.
Amaranthus Spinosa Linn., Amaranthaceae – contains amaranthine, a flavonoid glycoside; also has antioxidant activity.
Courses are designed to introduce students to the basic concepts and principles underlying pharmacology, including drug action mechanisms. The emphasis will be on understanding how drugs work in humans by studying their effects on specific organs or systems. Students will learn about the structure-activity relationships for a variety of therapeutic agents and toxicological properties of these compounds.
• Explores the fundamentals of plant biology and its applications in modern pharmaceutical science
• Provides detailed information about medicinal herbs used around the world
• Includes chapters that cover topics such as herbal remedies, phytochemical analysis, ethnobotanical studies, traditional Chinese medicine, and other related fields
• Covers both historical perspectives and contemporary developments in the eld of pharmacognosy
• Offers practical advice on how to use these resources effectively
American Society of Pharmacognosy
The American Society for Pharmacognosy is a professional organization that promotes the study and practice of pharmacognosy. It was founded in 1887 by Drs. William A. Hammond, John H.Kellogg, and George W. Smith as The New York Academy of Science Section on Pharmacy. In 1893it became an independent society with its constitution and officers. Its first president was Dr. HenryE. Sigerist. American Society of Pharmacognosy Summer Research Fellowship
The American Society for Pharmacognosy is pleased to announce that it will award two summer research fellowships, one each year, to outstanding graduate students pursuing careers as pharmacologists or related scientists. The fellowship provides support for up to $5,000 per month during the summer months. Fellows must have completed their Ph.D. by July 1st, 2014.